Olympus SlideBook 4.1 Advanced Imaging Software .
Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
.
Theory of Confocal Microscopy

Fluorochrome Data Table

As a guide to fluorophores for confocal and widefield fluorescence microscopy, the table presented below lists many commonly-used fluorochromes, with their respective peak absorption and emission wavelengths and suggested laser illumination sources. While the authors assume responsibility for the accurate reporting of the data as published in various reliable sources, several caveats must be given. Fluorochrome dyes are environmentally sensitive and different results will be obtained with different solvents and applications. In reviewing the literature, one will frequently find somewhat different data supplied for the identical fluorochrome. There are also, in many instances, several sub-varieties of a fluorochrome.

The Handbook of Fluorescent Probes and Research Chemicals, published by Molecular Probes, Inc. in Eugene, Oregon is a rich source of information about fluorochrome dyes. Also, consult the publications of Omega Optical and Chroma Technology.

Fluorochrome Peak Absorption and Emission Wavelengths
Fluorochrome Absorption
Wavelength
Emission
Wavelength
Suggested
Laser
Acid Fuchsin
540
630
Green He-Ne
ACMA (Aminochloromethoxyacridine)
430
474
Blue Diode
Acridine Orange (Bound to DNA)
502
526
Argon-Ion
Acridine Red
455-600
560-680
Argon-Ion
Acridine Yellow
470
550
Argon-Ion
Acriflavin
436
520
Blue Diode
AFA (Acriflavin Feulgen SITSA)
355-425
460
Blue Diode
Alexa Fluor 350
346
442
Helium-Cadmium
Alexa Fluor 405
401
421
Blue Diode
Alexa Fluor 430
433
541
Blue Diode
Alexa Fluor 488
495
519
Argon-Ion
Alexa Fluor 500
503
525
Argon-Ion
Alexa Fluor 514
518
540
Argon-Ion
Alexa Fluor 532
532
553
Krypton-Argon
Alexa Fluor 546
556
573
Green He-Ne
Alexa Fluor 555
555
565
Krypton-Argon
Alexa Fluor 568
578
603
Krypton-Argon
Alexa Fluor 594
590
617
Orange He-Ne
Alexa Fluor 610
612
628
Orange He-Ne
Alexa Fluor 633
632
647
Red He-Ne
Alexa Fluor 647
650
665
Krypton-Argon
Alexa Fluor 660
663
690
Red Diode
Alexa Fluor 680
679
702
Red Diode
Alizarin Complexon
530-560
580
Green He-Ne
Alizarin Red
530-560
580
Green He-Ne
AMCA
350
445
Helium-Cadmium
Aminoactinomycin D
555
655
Krypton-Argon
6-Aminoquinoline
355
550
Helium-Cadmium
Aniline Blue
370
509
Argon-Ion
ANS (Anilinonaphthalene Sulfonic Acid)
385
485
Blue Diode
Anthroyl Stearate
361-381
446
Argon-Ion
APC (Allophycocyanin)
650
661
Krypton-Argon
Astrazon Brilliant Red 4G
500
585
Argon-Ion
Astrazon Orange R
470
540
Argon-Ion
Astrazon Red 6B
520
595
Argon-Ion
Astrazon Yellow 7 GLL
450
480
Argon-Ion
Atabrine
436
490
Blue Diode
ATTO-TAG CBQ
465
560
Argon-Ion
ATTO-TAG FQ
486
591
Argon-Ion
Auramine O
460
550
Argon-Ion
Aurophosphine
450-490
515
Argon-Ion
Aurophosphine G
450
580
Argon-Ion
BAO 9-(Bisaminophenyloxadiazole)
365
395
Argon-Ion
BCECF
505
530
Argon-Ion
Berberine Sulphate
430
550
Blue Diode
Bisbenzamide
360
600-610
Helium-Cadmium
BOBO-1, BO-PRO-1
462
481
Argon-Ion
BOBO-3, BO-PRO-3
570
604
Krypton-Argon
Blancophor FFG Solution
390
470
Blue Diode
Blancophor SV
370
435
Argon-Ion
BODIPY FL
503
512
Argon-Ion
BODIPY TMR
542
574
Green He-Ne
BODIPY TR
589
617
Yellow He-Ne
BODIPY 492/515
490
515
Argon-Ion
BODIPY 493/503
500
506
Argon-Ion
BODIPY 500/510
509
515
Argon-Ion
BODIPY 505/515
502
510
Argon-Ion
BODIPY 530/550
533
550
Krypton-Argon
BODIPY 558/568
558
568
Krypton-Argon
BODIPY 564/570
564
570
Krypton-Argon
BODIPY 581/591
582
590
Yellow He-Ne
BODIPY 630/650
625
640
Red He-Ne
BODIPY 650/665
647
665
Red He-Ne
BODIPY 665/676
665
676
Red Diode
Brilliant Sulphoflavin FF
430
520
Blue Diode
BTC (Benzothiazole Calcium Indicator)
401, 464
529
Blue Diode
Calcein
494
517
Argon-Ion
Calcein Blue
370
435
Argon-Ion
Calcium Crimson
590
611
Yellow He-Ne
Calcium Green
505
532
Argon-Ion
Calcium Orange
549
576
Green He-Ne
Calcofluor (RW Solution)
370
440
Argon-Ion
Calcofluor White
440
500-520
Blue Diode
Calcofluor White (ABT Solution)
380
475
Argon-Ion
Calcofluor White (Standard Solution)
365
435
Argon-Ion
Carbocyanine LDL
520
560
Argon-Ion
5-(and 6-)-Carboxy SNARF-1 Indicator
548 (Low pH)
576 (High pH)
587 (Low pH)
635 (High pH)
Krypton-Argon
5-Carboxynaphthofluorescein
598
668
Yellow He-Ne
6-Carboxyrhodamine 6G
525
555
Argon-Ion
Cascade Blue
400
425
Blue Diode
Cascade Yellow
402
545
Blue Diode
Catecholamine
410
470
Blue Diode
CCF2 (GeneBLAzer)
402
520
Blue Diode
CellTracker Blue
353
466
Helium-Cadmium
CellTracker Green BODIPY
522
529
Argon-Ion
CFDA (Carboxyfluorescein Diacetate)
495
520
Argon-Ion
Chinacrine
450-490
515
Argon-Ion
Chromomycin A3
450
570
Argon-Ion
CL-NERF
504 (Low pH)
514 (High pH)
587 (Low pH)
540 (High pH)
Argon-Ion
Coriphosphine O
460
575
Argon-Ion
Coumarin-Phalloidin
387
470
Blue Diode
CPM (Coumarin-Maleimide)
385
465
Blue Diode
CTC Formazan
450
630
Argon-Ion
Cy2
489
506
Argon-Ion
Cy3
548
562
Green He-Ne
Cy3.1.8
554
568
Krypton-Argon
Cy3.5
581
596
Krypton-Argon
Cy5
650
670
Krypton-Argon
Cy5.1.8
649
666
Krypton-Argon
Cy5.5
675
695
Red Diode
Cy7
710
805
Near-Infrared
DANS
340
525
Helium-Cadmium
DANSA
340-380
430
Helium-Cadmium
Dansyl Cadaverine
335
518
Helium-Cadmium
Dansyl Chloride
335
500
Helium-Cadmium
Dansyl Hydrazine
336
531
Helium-Cadmium
DAO (Diaminophenyloxydiazole)
280
460
Helium-Cadmium
DAPI
350
470
Helium-Cadmium
Dapoxyl
373
574
Argon-Ion
Di-4-ANEPPS
496
705
Argon-Ion
Di-8-ANEPPS
488
605
Argon-Ion
DiA
456
590
Argon-Ion
DiD (DilC18(5))
644
665
Krypton-Argon
DIDS
341
414
Helium-Cadmium
DiI-C18(3)
549
565
Green He-Ne
Dimethylamino-5-Sulphonic Acid
310-370
520
Helium-Cadmium
DiO-C18(3)
484
501
Argon-Ion
Diphenyl Brilliant Flavine 7GFF
430
520
Blue Diode
DM-NERF
497 (Low pH)
510 (High pH)
527 (Low pH)
536 (High pH)
Argon-Ion
DPH (Diphenylhexatriene)
351
430
Helium-Cadmium
Dopamine
340
490-520
Helium-Cadmium
DsRFP (Ds Red Fluorescent Protein)
558
583
Green He-Ne
ELF-97 Alcohol
345
530
Helium-Cadmium
EBFP (Enhanced Blue FP)
380
440
Blue Diode
ECFP (Enhanced Cyan FP)
433, 453
475, 501
Blue Diode
EGFP (Enhanced GFP)
488
507
Argon-Ion
ERTracker Blue/White DPX
374
575
Argon-Ion
EYFP (Enhanced Yellow FP)
513
527
Argon-Ion
Eosin
525
545
Argon-Ion
Erythrosin Isothiocyanate
530
558
Argon-Ion
Ethidium Bromide
510
595
Argon-Ion
Ethidium Homodimer
528
617
Argon-Ion
Euchrysin
430
540
Blue Diode
Evans Blue
550
610
Green He-Ne
FAM (5-Carboxyfluorescein)
492
518
Argon-Ion
Fast Blue
360
410
Helium-Cadmium
FDA (Fluorescein Diacetate)
495
520
Blue Diode
Flazo Orange
375-530
612
Argon-Ion
Fluorescamine
390
460
Blue Diode
Fluorescein
494
518
Argon-Ion
Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC)
490
525
Argon-Ion
Fluo-3
485
503
Argon-Ion
Fluo-4
494
516
Argon-Ion
FluoroEmerald
494
520
Argon-Ion
FluoroGold (Hydroxystilbamidine)
323 (Low pH)
368 (High pH)
408 (Low pH)
565 (High pH)
Helium-Cadmium
FluoroJade
425
510
Blue Diode
FluoroRuby
555
582
Krypton-Argon
FluorX
494
520
Argon-Ion
FM1-43
479
598
Argon-Ion
FM4-64
515
640
Argon-Ion
Formaldehyde Induced Fluorescence
405
435
Blue Diode
Fura-2
363 (Low [Ca])
335 (High [Ca])
512 (Low [Ca])
505 (High [Ca])
Helium-Cadmium
Fura Red
472 (Low [Ca])
436 (High [Ca])
657 (Low [Ca])
637 (High [Ca])
Argon-Ion
Genacryl Brilliant Red B
520
590
Argon-Ion
Genacryl Brilliant Yellow 10GF
430
485
Blue Diode
Genacryl Pink 3G
470
583
Argon-Ion
Genacryl Yellow 5GF
430
475
Blue Diode
GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein)
395, 475
510
Blue Diode
Gloxalic Acid
405
460
Blue Diode
Granular Blue
355
425
Helium-Cadmium
Haematoporphyrin
530-560
580
Green He-Ne
Hoechst 33258, 33342 (Bound to DNA)
352
461
Helium-Cadmium
3-Hydroxypyrene-5,8,10-TriSulfonic Acid
403
513
Blue Diode
7-Hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin
360
455
Helium-Cadmium
5-Hydroxy-Tryptamine (5-HT)
380-415
520-530
Blue Diode
1,5-IAEDANS
336
482
Helium-Cadmium
Indo-1
350
405-482
Helium-Cadmium
Indodicarbocyanine
644
665
Krypton-Argon
Intrawhite Cf (Liquid)
360
430
Helium-Cadmium
JC-1
514
529
Argon-Ion
6-JOE
525
555
Argon-Ion
JOJO-1, JO-PRO-1
529
545
Argon-Ion
Leucophor PAF
370
430
Argon-Ion
Leucophor SF
380
465
Argon-Ion
Leucophor WS
395
465
Blue Diode
Lissamine Rhodamine B200 (RD200)
575
595
Krypton-Argon
LOLO-1, LO-PRO-1
565
579
Krypton-Argon
Lucifer Yellow CH
425
528
Blue Diode
Lucifer Yellow VS
430
535
Blue Diode
LysoSensor Blue DND-192, DND-167
374
425
Argon-Ion
LysoSensor Green DND-153, DND-189
442
505
Argon-Ion
LysoSensor Yellow/Blue
384 (Low pH)
329 (High pH)
540 (Low pH)
440 (High pH)
Helium-Cadmium
LysoTracker Blue
373
422
Argon-Ion
LysoTracker Blue/White
466
536
Argon-Ion
LysoTracker Green
504
511
Argon-Ion
LysoTracker Red
577
590
Krypton-Argon
LysoTracker Yellow HCK-123
465
535
Green He-Ne
Magdala Red
524
600
Argon-Ion
Magnesium Green
506
531
Argon-Ion
Magnesium Orange
550
575
Green He-Ne
Marina Blue
362
459
Argon-Ion
Maxilon Brilliant Flavin 10 GFF
450
495
Argon-Ion
Maxilon Brilliant Flavin 8 GFF
460
495
Argon-Ion
Merocyanine 540
500
572
Argon-Ion
4-Methylumbelliferone
360
449
Helium-Cadmium
Mithramycin
450
570
Argon-Ion
MitoFluor Green
490
516
Argon-Ion
MitoFluor Red 589
588
622
Yellow He-Ne
MitoFluor Red 594
598
630
Orange He-Ne
MitoFluor Far Red 680
680
>700
Red Diode
MitoTracker Green FM
490
516
Argon-Ion
MitoTracker Orange CMTMRos
554
576
Krypton-Argon
MitoTracker Red CMXRos
579
599
Krypton-Argon
MitoTracker Red 580
581
644
Krypton-Argon
MitoTracker Deep Red 633
644
665
Krypton-Argon
MPS (Methyl Green Pyronine Stilbene)
364
395
Argon-Ion
Monochlorobimane
380
461
Blue Diode
Nano Orange
485
590
Argon-Ion
NBD
450
530
Argon-Ion
Nile Red
515-530
525-605
Argon-Ion
Nitrobenzoxadidole
460-470
510-650
Argon-Ion
Noradrenaline
340
490-520
Helium-Cadmium
Nuclear Fast Red
289-530
580
Argon-Ion
Nuclear Yellow
365
495
Argon-Ion
Nylosan Brilliant Flavin E8G
460
510
Argon-Ion
Olivomycin
430
545
Blue Diode
OPT (o-Phthalaldehyde)
340
455
Helium-Cadmium
Oregon Green 488
496
524
Argon-Ion
Oregon Green 500
503
522
Argon-Ion
Oregon Green 514
511
530
Argon-Ion
Pacific Blue
410
455
Blue Diode
Pararosaniline (Feulgen)
570
625
Krypton-Argon
PE-B (Phycoerythrin B)
545
576
Green He-Ne
PE-R (Phycoerythrin R)
490, 565
578
Argon-Ion
Phorwite AR (Solution)
360
430
Helium-Cadmium
Phorwite BKL
370
430
Argon-Ion
Phorwite Rev
380
430
Argon-Ion
Phorwite RPA
375
430
Argon-Ion
Phosphine 3R
465
565
Argon-Ion
Phosphine R
480-565
578
Argon-Ion
Phycocyanin C
620
648
Orange He-Ne
Phycocyanin R
618
642
Orange He-Ne
PKH26
551
567
Green He-Ne
Pontochrome Blue Black
535-553
605
Green He-Ne
POPO-1, PO-PRO-1
434
456
Blue Diode
POPO-3, PO-PRO-3
534
572
Green He-Ne
Primuline O
410
550
Blue Diode
Procion Yellow
470
600
Argon-Ion
Propidium Iodide
536
617
Green He-Ne
PyMPO
415
570
Blue Diode
Pyrene
345
378
Helium-Cadmium
Pyronin Y
540
570
Green He-Ne
Pyronine
410
540
Blue Diode
Pyronine B
540-590
560-650
Krypton-Argon
Pyrozal Brilliant Flavin 7GF
365
495
Argon-Ion
Qdot 525
350-450
525
Blue Diode
Qdot 525
350-525
565
Blue Diode
Qdot 585
350-550
585
Blue Diode
Qdot 605
350-575
605
Blue Diode
Qdot 655
350-600
655
Blue Diode
Quinacrine Mustard
423
503
Blue Diode
Resorufin
570
585
Krypton-Argon
RH 414
532
716
Argon-Ion
Rhod-2
550
571
Green He-Ne
Rhodamine 110
496
520
Argon-Ion
Rhodamine 123
511
534
Argon-Ion
Rhodamine 5 GLD
470
565
Argon-Ion
Rhodamine 6G
526
555
Argon-Ion
Rhodamine B
540
625
Green He-Ne
Rhodamine B 200
523-557
595
Green He-Ne
Rhodamine B Extra
550
605
Green He-Ne
Rhodamine BB
540
580
Green He-Ne
Rhodamine BG
540
572
Green He-Ne
Rhodamine Green
502
527
Argon-Ion
Rhodamine Red
570
590
Krypton-Argon
Rhodamine WT
530
555
Argon-Ion
Rhodol Green
499
525
Argon-Ion
RITC (Rhodamine B Isothiocyanate)
570
595
Krypton-Argon
Rose Bengal
540
550-600
Green He-Ne
ROX (Carboxy-X-Rhodamine)
574
602
Krypton-Argon
SBFI
334
525
Helium-Cadmium
Serotonin
365
520-540
Argon-Ion
Sevron Brilliant Red 2B
520
595
Argon-Ion
Sevron Brilliant Red 4G
500
583
Argon-Ion
Sevron Brilliant Red B
530
590
Argon-Ion
Sevron Orange
440
530
Blue Diode
Sevron Yellow L
430
490
Blue Diode
SITS (Stilbeneisothiosulphonic Acid)
337
436
Helium-Cadmium
Sodium Green
507
535
Argon-Ion
Spectrum Aqua
433
480
Blue Diode
Spectrum Green
497
524
Argon-Ion
Spectrum Orange
559
588
Krypton-Argon
Spectrum Red
604
624
Orange He-Ne
Stilbene
335
440
Helium-Cadmium
Sulforhodamine 101
586
605
Yellow He-Ne
Sulforhodamine B
565
586
Krypton-Argon
Sulforhodamine G
529
548
Argon-Ion
SYTOX Blue
444
480
Blue Diode
SYTOX Green
504
523
Argon-Ion
SYTOX Orange
547
570
Green He-Ne
TAMRA (Carboxytetramethylrhodamine)
542
568
Green He-Ne
Tetracycline
390
560
Blue Diode
Texas Red
596
615
Yellow He-Ne
Thiazine Red R
510
580
Argon-Ion
Thiazole Orange
453
480
Argon-Ion
Thioflavin S
430
550
Blue Diode
Thioflavin TCN
350
460
Helium-Cadmium
Thiolyte
370-385
477-484
Argon-Ion
Tinopol CBS
390
430
Blue Diode
TOTO 1, TO-RRO-1
514
533
Argon-Ion
TOTO 3, TO-PRO-3
642
661
Krypton-Argon
TRITC
557
576
Krypton-Argon
True Blue
365
420-430
Argon-Ion
Ultralite
656
678
Krypton-Argon
Uranine B
420
520
Blue Diode
Uvitex SFC
365
435
Argon-Ion
X-Rhodamine
580
605
Krypton-Argon
Xylenol Orange
546
580
Green He-Ne
XRITC (X-Rhodamine Isothiocyanate)
582
601
Krypton-Argon
YOYO-1, YO-PRO-1
491
509
Argon-Ion
YOYO-3, YO-PRO-3
612
631
Orange He-Ne

Although the data presented in this table have been checked for accuracy, it is strongly urged that the properties for a particular fluorophore be confirmed by first consulting the dye manufacturer to secure a full specification of the spectral profiles for absorption and emission prior to launching experiments. In addition, the suggested lasers are intended as a reference guide only, and in many cases, alternative illumination sources may produce superior results.

BACK TO THEORY OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY