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Biosensor Fluorescent Protein Literature Sources

By directly coupling the advanced microscopic technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to the ubiquitous green fluorescent protein and its multispectral variants fused with selected biopolymers, ingenious researchers have created several new classes of biosensors capable of elucidating mechanisms of signaling, enzymatic cleavage, and other critical functions in living cells. This section features a bibliography of literature sources for review articles and original research reports on the construction, applications, and continued development of biosensor fluorescent proteins.

Abad, M. F. C., DiBenedetto, G., Magalhães, P. J., Filippin, L., and Pozzan, T., Mitochondrial pH monitored by a new engineered green fluorescent protein mutant., Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 11521-11529 (2004). | PubMed |

Abedi, M. R., Caponigro, G., and Kamb, A., Green fluorescent protein as a scaffold for intracellular presentation of peptides., Nucleic Acids Research 26: 623-630 (1998).
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Allen, G. J., Chu, S. P., Schumacher, K., Shimazaki, C. T., Vafeados, D., Kemper, A., Hawke, S. D., Tallman, G., Tsien, R. Y., Harper, J. F., Chory, J., and Schroeder, J. I., Alteration of stimulus-specific guard cell calcium oscillations and stomatal closing in Arabidopsis det3 mutant., Science 289: 2338-2342 (2000). | PubMed |

Allen, G. J., Kwak, J. M., Chu, S. P., Llopis, J., Tsien, R. Y., Harper, J. F., and Schroeder, J. I., Cameleon C\calcium indicator reports cytoplasmic calcium dynamics in Arabidopsis guard cells., The Plant Journal 19: 735-747 (1999). | PubMed |

Ataka, K. and Pieribone, V. A., A genetically targetable fluorescent probe of channel gating with rapid kinetics., Biophysical Journal 82: 509-516 (2002). | PubMed |

Awais, M., Sato, M., Sasaki, K., and Umezawa, Y., A genetically encoded fluorescent indicator capable of discriminating estrogen agonists from antagonists in living cells., Analytical Chemistry 76: 2181-2186 (2004). | Anal Chem |

Baird, G. S., Zacharias, D. A., and Tsien, R. Y., Biochemistry, mutagenesis, and oligomerization of DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 97: 11984-11989 (2000). | PubMed |

Barondeau, D. P., Kassman, C. J., Tainer, J. A., and Getzoff, E. D., Structural chemistry of a green fluorescent protein zinc biosensor., Journal of the American Chemical Society 124: 3522-3524 (2002). | PubMed |

Bartlett, P. J., Young, K. W., Nahorski, S. R., and Challiss, R. A. J., Single cell analysis and temporal profiling of agonist-mediated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, Ca2+, diacylglycerol, and protein kinase C signaling using fluorescent biosensors., The Journal of Biological Chemistry 280: 21837-21846 (2005). | PubMed |

Bastiaens, P. I. H. and Pepperkok, R., Observing proteins in their natural habitat: The living cell., Trends in Biochemical Sciences 25: 631-637 (2000). | PubMed |

Berridge, M. J., Lipp, P., and Bootman, M. D., The versatility and universality of calcium signaling., Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 1: 11-21 (2000). | PubMed |

Billinton, N., Barker, M. G., Michel, C. E., Knight, A. W., Heyer, W. D., Goddard, N. J., Fielden, P. R., and Walmsley, R. M., Development of a green fluorescent protein reporter for a yeast genotoxicity biosensor., Biosensors and Bioelectronics 13: 831-838 (1998).
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Biondi, R. M., Baehler, P. J., Reymond, C. D., and Véron, M., Random insertion of GFP into the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit from Dictyostelium discoideum., Nucleic Acids Research 26: 4946-4952 (1998). | PubMed |

Bozza, T., McGann, J. P., Mombaerts, P., and Wachowiak, M., In vivo imaging of neuronal activity by targeted expression of a genetically encoded probe in the mouse., Neuron 42: 9-21 (2004). | PubMed |

Bracha-Drori, K., Shichrur, K., Katz, A., Oliva, M., Angelovici, R., Yalovsky, S., and Ohad, N., Detection of protein-protein interactions in plants using bimolecular fluorescence complementation., The Plant Journal 40: 419-427 (2004). | PubMed |

Bünemann, M., Frank, M., and Lohse, M. J., Gi protein activation in intact cells involves subunit rearrangement rather than dissociation., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 100: 16077-16082 (2003). | PubMed |

Cannon, M. B. and Remington, S. J., Re-engineering redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein for improved response rate., Protein Science 15: 45-57 (2006). | PubMed |

Chan, F. K. M., Siegel, R. M., Zacharias, D., Swofford, R., Holmes, K. L., Tsien, R. Y., and Lenardo, M. J., Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of cell surface receptor interactions and signaling using spectral variants of the green fluorescent protein., Cytometry 44: 361-368 (2001). | PubMed |

Chiang, J. J. H. and Truong, K., Using co-cultures expressing fluorescence resonance energy transfer based protein biosensors to simultaneously image caspase-3 and calcium signaling., Biotechnology Letters 27: 1219-1227 (2005). | PubMed |

Chiu, V. K., Bivona, T., Hach, A., Sajous, J. B., Silletti, J., Wiener, H., Johnson, R. L., Coxt, A. D., and Phillips, M. R., Ras signaling on the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi., Nature Cell Biology 4: 343-350 (2002). | PubMed |

Demaurex, N. and Frieden, M., Measurements of the free luminal ER calcium concentration with targeted "cameleon" fluorescent proteins., Cell Calcium 34: 109-119 (2003). | PubMed |

DiPilato, L. M., Cheng, X., and Zhang, J., Fluorescent indicators of cAMP and Epac activation reveals differential dynamics of cAMP signaling within discrete subcellular compartments., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 101: 16513-16518 (2004). | PubMed |

Dooley, C. T., Dore, T. M., Hanson, G. T., Jackson, W. C., Remington, S. J., and Tsien, R. Y., Imaging dynamic redox changes in mammalian cells with green fluorescent protein indicators., Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 22284-22293 (2004). | PubMed |

Emmanouilidou, E., Teschemacher, A. G., Pouli, A. E., Nicholls, L. I., Seward, E. P., and Rutter, G. A., Imaging calcium concentration changes at the secretory vesicle surface with a recombinant targeted cameleon., Current Biology 9: 915-918 (1999). | PubMed |

Erickson, M. G., Alseikhan, B. A., Peterson, B. Z., and Yue, D. T., Preassociation of calmodulin with voltage-gated calcium channels revealed by FRET in single living cells., Neuron 31: 973-985 (2001). | PubMed |

Fan, G. Y., Fujisaki, H., Miyawaki, A., Tsay, R. K., Tsien, R. Y., and Ellisman, M. H., Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons., Biophysical Journal 76: 2412-2420 (1999). | PubMed |

Fehr, M., Frommer, W. B., and Lalonde, S., Visualization of maltose uptake in living yeast cells by fluorescent nanosensors., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 99: 9846-9851 (2002). | PubMed |

Fehr, M., Lalonde, S., Lager, I., Wolff, M. W., and Frommer, W. B., In vivo imaging of the dynamics of glucose uptake in the cytosol of COS-7 cells by fluorescent nanosensors., The Journal of Biological Chemistry 278: 19127-19133 (2003). | PubMed |

Fehr, M., Okumoto, S., Deuschle, K., Lager, I., Looger, L. L., Persson, J., Kozhuhk, L., Lalonde, S., and Frommer, W. B., Development and use of fluorescent nanosensors for metabolite imaging in living cells., Biochemical Society Transactions 33: 287-290 (2005). | PubMed |

Fiala, A., Spall, T., Diegelmann, S., Eisermann, B., Sachse, S., Devaud, J. M., Buchner, E., and Galizia, C. G., Genetically expressed cameleon in Drosophila melanogaster is used to visualize olfactory information in projection neurons., Current Biology 12: 1877-1884 (2002). | PubMed |

Filippin, L., Abad, M. C., Gastaldello, S., Magalhães, P. J., Sandonà, D., and Pozzan, T., Improved strategies for the delivery of GFP-based calcium sensors into the mitochondrial matrix., Cell Calcium 37: 129-136 (2005). | PubMed |

Filippin, L., Magalhães, P. J., Di Benedetto, G., Colella, M., and Pozzan, T., Stable interactions between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum allow rapid accumulation of calcium in a subpopulation of mitochondria., Journal of Biological Chemistry 278: 39224-39234 (2003). | PubMed |

Foyouzi-Youssefi, R., Arnaudeau, S., Borner, C., Kelley, W. L., Tschopp, J., Lew, D. P., Demaurex, N., and Krause, K. H., Bcl-2 decreases the free calcium concentration within the endoplasmic reticulum., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 97: 5723-5728 (2000). | PubMed |

Gaietta, G., Deerinck, T. J., Adams, S. R., Bouwer, J., Tour, O., Laird, D. W., Sosinsky, G. E., Tsien, R. Y., and Ellisman, M. H., Multicolor and electron microscopic imaging of connexin trafficking., Science 296: 503-507 (2002). | PubMed |

Gaits, F. and Hahn, K., Shedding Light on Cell Signaling: Interpretation of FRET biosensors., Science Stke 165: 1-5 (2003). | PubMed |

Goodwin, J. S., Drake, K. R., Remmert, C. L., and Kenworthy, A. K., Ras diffusion is sensitive to plasma membrane viscosity., Biophysical Journal 89: 1398-1410 (2005).
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Gorokhovatsky, A. Y., Marchenkov, V. V., Rudenko, N. V., Ivashina, T. V., Ksenzenko, V. N., Burkhardt, N., Semisotnov, G. V., Vinokurov, L. M., and Alakhov, Y. B., Fusion of Aequorea victoria GFP and aequorin provides their calcium-induced interaction that results in red shift of GFP absorption and efficient bioluminescence energy transfer., Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 320: 703-711 (2004). | PubMed |

Griesbeck, O., Fluorescent proteins as sensors for cellular functions., Current Opinion in Neurobiology 14: 636-641 (2004). | PubMed |

Griesbeck, O., Baird, G. S., Campbell, R. E., Zacharias, D. A., and Tsien, R. Y., Reducing the environmental sensitivity of yellow fluorescent protein., Journal of Biological Chemistry 276: 29188-29194 (2001). | PubMed |

Guerrero, G. and Isacoff, E. Y., Genetically encoded optical sensors of neuronal activity and cellular function., Current Opinion in Neurobiology 11: 601-607 (2001). | PubMed |

Guerrero, G., Siegel, M. S., Roska, B., Loots, E., and Isacoff, E. Y., Tuning FlaSh: Redesign of the dynamics, voltage range, and color of the genetically encoded optical sensor of membrane potential., Biophysical Journal 83: 3607-3618 (2002). | PubMed |

Habuchi, S., Cotlet, M., Hofkens, J., Dirix, G., Michiels, J., Vanderleyden, J., Subramaniam, V., and De Schryver, F. C., Resonance energy transfer in a calcium concentration-dependent cameleon protein., Biophysical Journal 83: 3499-3506 (2002). | PubMed |

Han, W., Li, D., and Levitan, E. S., A new green fluorescent protein construct for localizing and quantifying peptide release., Annals New York Academy of Sciences 971: 627-633 (2002). | PubMed |

Hanson, G. T., Aggeler, R.., Oglesbee, D., Cannon, M., Capaldi, R. A., Tsien, R. Y., and Remington, S. J., Investigating mitochondrial redox potential with redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein indicators., Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 13044-13053 (2004). | PubMed |

Hanson, G. T., McAnaney, T. B., Park, E. S., Rendell, M. E. P., Yarbrough, D. K., Chu, S., Xi, L., Boxer, S. G., Montrose, M. H., and Remington, S. J., Green fluorescent protein variants as ratiometric dual emission pH sensors. 1. Structural characterization and preliminary application., Biochemistry 41: 15477-15488 (2002). | PubMed |

Harpur, A. G., Wouters, F. S., and Bastiaens, P. I. H., Imaging FRET between spectrally similar GFP molecules in single cells., Nature Biotechnology 19: 167-169 (2001).
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Hasan, M. T., Friedrich, R. W., Euler, T., Larkum, M. E., Giese, G., Both, M., Duebel, J., Waters, J., Bujard, H., Griesbeck, O., Tsien, R. Y., Nagai, T., Miyawaki, A., and Denk, W., Functional fluorescent calcium indicator proteins in transgenic mice under TET control., PLoS Biology 2: 0763-0775 (2004). | PubMed |

He, L., Wu, X., Meylan, F., Olson, D. P., Simone, J., Hewgill, D., Siegel, R., and Lipsky, P. E., Monitoring caspase activity in living cells using fluorescent proteins and flow cytometry., American Journal of Pathology 164: 1901-1913 (2004). | PubMed |

Heim, N. and Griesbeck, O., Genetically encoded indicators of cellular calcium dynamics based on troponin C and green fluorescent protein., Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 14280-14286 (2004). | PubMed |

Heim, R., Green fluorescent protein forms for energy transfer., Methods in Enzymology 302: 408-423 (1999). | PubMed |

Heim, R. and Tsien, R. Y., Engineering green fluorescent protein for improved brightness, longer wavelengths and fluorescence resonance energy transfer., Current Biology 6: 178-182 (1996). | PubMed |

Heinemann, U. and Hahn, M., Circular permutation of polypeptide chains: Implications for protein folding and stability., Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 64: 121-143 (1995). | PubMed |

Higashijima, S., Masino, M. A., Mandel, G, and Fetcho, J. R., Imaging neuronal activity during zebrafish behavior with a genetically encoded calcium indicator., Journal of Neurophysiology 90: 3986-3997 (2003). | PubMed |

Hoffmann, C., Gaietta, G., Bünemann, M., Adams, S. R., Oberdorff-Maass, S., Behr, B., Vilardaga, J. P., Tsien, R. Y., Ellisman, M. H., and Lohse, M. J., A FlAsH-based FRET approach to determine G protein-coupled receptor activation in living cells., Nature Methods 2: 171-176 (2005). | PubMed |

Hofmann, A., Iwai, H., Hess, S., Pluckthun, A., and Wlodawer, A., Structure of cyclized green fluorescent protein., Acta Crystallographica D58: 1400-1406 (2002). | PubMed |

Honda, A., Adams, S. R., Sawyer, C. L., Lev-Ram, V., Tsien, R. Y., and Dostmann, W. R. G., Spatiotemporal dynamics of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate revealed by a genetically encoded, fluorescent indicator., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 98: 2437-2442 (2001). | PubMed |

Hu, C. D., Chinenov, Y., and Kerppola, T. K., Visualization of interactions among bZIP and Rel family proteins in living cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation., Molecular Cell 9: 789-798 (2002). | PubMed |

Hu, C. D. and Kerppola, T. K., Simultaneous visualization of multiple protein interactions in living cells using multicolor fluorescence complementation analysis., Nature Biotechnology 21: 539-545 (2003). | PubMed |

Ikeda, M., Sugiyama, T., Wallace, C. S., Gompf, H. S., Yoshioka, T., Miyawaki, A., and Allen, C. N., Circadian dynamics of cytosolic and nuclear calcium in single suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons., Neuron 38: 253-263 (2003). | PubMed |

Isshiki, M., Ying, Y. S., Fujita, T., and Anderson, R. G. W., A molecular sensor detects signal transduction from caveolae in living cells., The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277: 43389-43398 (2002). | PubMed |

Jaconi, M., Bony, C., Richards, S. M., Terzic, A., Arnaudeau, S., Vassort, G., and Pucéat, M., Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate directs calcium flow between mitochondria and the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum: A role in regulating cardiac autonomic calcium spiking., Molecular Biology of the Cell 11: 1845-1858 (2000). | PubMed |

Janetopoulos, C. and Devreotes, P., Monitoring receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins by fluorescence resonance energy transfer., Methods 27: 366-373 (2002). | PubMed |

Janetopoulos, C., Jin, T., and Devreotes, P., Receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins in living cells., Science 291: 2408-2411 (2001). | PubMed |

Jayaraman, S., Haggie, P., Wachter, R. M., Remington, S. J., and Verkman, A. S., Mechanism and cellular applications of a green fluorescent protein-based halide sensor., Journal of Biological Chemistry 275: 6047-6050 (2000). | PubMed |

Jensen, K. K., Martini, L., and Schwartz, T. W., Enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer between spectral variants of green fluorescent protein through zinc-site engineering., Biochemistry 40: 938-945 (2001). | PubMed |

Ji, G., Feldman, M. E., Deng, K. Y., Greene, K. S., Wilson, J., Lee, J. C., Johnston, R. C., Rishniw, M., Tallini, Y., Zhang, J., Wier, W. G., Blaustein, M. P., Xin, H. B., Nakai, J., and Kotlikoff, M. I., Calcium-sensing transgenic mice: Post-synaptic signaling in smooth muscle.., Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 21461-21468 (2004). | PubMed |

Jones, J., Heim, R., Hare, E., Stack, J., and Pollok, B. A., Development and application of a GFP-FRET intracellular caspase assay for drug screening., Journal of Biomolecular Screening 5: 307-317 (2000). | PubMed |

Jones, J. T., Myers, J. W., Ferrell, J. E., Jr., and Meyer, T., Probing the precision of the mitotic clock with a live-cell fluorescent biosensor., Nature Biotechnology 22: 306-312 (2004). | PubMed |

Kaganman, I., DNA makes GFP shine., Nature Methods 2: 644 (2005). | PubMed |

Kaihara, A., Kawai, Y., Sato, M., Ozawa, T., and Umezawa, Y., Locating a protein-protein interaction in living cells via Renilla luciferase complementation., Analytical Chemistry 75: 4176-4181 (2003). | Anal Chem |

Kawai, H., Suzuki, T., Kobayashi, T., Mizuguchi, H., Hayakawa, T., and Kawanishi, T., Simultaneous imaging of initiator/effector caspase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential during cell death in living HeLa cells., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1693: 101-110 (2004). | PubMed |

Kawai, H., Suzuki, T., Kobayashi, T., Sakurai, H., Ohata, H., Honda, K., Momose, K., Namekata, I., Tanaka, H., Shigenobu, K., Nakamura, R., Hayakawa, T., and Kawanishi, T., Simultaneous real-time detection of initiator- and effector-caspase activation by double fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis., Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 97: 361-368 (2005). | PubMed |

Kawai, Y., Sato, M., and Umezawa, Y., Single color fluorescent indicators of protein phosphorylation for multicolor imaging of intracellular signal flow dynamics., Analytical Chemistry 76: 6144-6149 (2004). | Anal Chem |

Kenworthy, A. K., Imaging protein-protein interactions using fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy., Methods 24: 289-296 (2001). | PubMed |

Kerr, R., Lev-Ram, V., Baird, G., Vincent, P., Tsien, R. Y., and Schafer, W. R., Optical imaging of calcium transients in neurons and pharyngeal muscle of C. elegans., Neuron 26: 583-594 (2000). | PubMed |

Kim, S. B., Ozawa, T., Watanabe, S., and Umezawa, Y., High-throughput sensing and noninvasive imaging of protein nuclear transport by using reconstitution of split Renilla luciferase., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 101: 11542-11547 (2004). | PubMed |

Kneen, M., Farinas, J., Li, Y., and Verkman, A. S., Green fluorescent protein as a noninvasive intracellular pH indicator., Biophysical Journal 74: 1591-1599 (1998).
| PubMed |

Köhler, M., Zaitsev, S. V., Zaitseva, I. I., Leibiger, B., Leibiger, I. B., Turunen, M., Kapelioukh, I. L., Bakkman, L., Appelskog, I. B., de Monvel, J. B., Imreh, G., and Berggren, P. O., On-line monitoring of apoptosis in insulin-secreting cells., Diabetes 52: 2943-2950 (2003).
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Kraynov, V. S., Chamberlain, C., Bokoch, G. M., Schwartz, M. A., Slabaugh, S., and Hahn, K. M., Localized Rac activation dynamics visualized in living cells., Science 290: 333-337 (2000). | PubMed |

Kuner, T. and Augustine, G. J., A genetically encoded ratiometric indicator for chloride: Capturing chloride transients in cultured hippocampal neurons., Neuron 27: 447-459 (2000). | PubMed |

Kunkel, M. T., Ni, Q., Tsien, R. Y., Zhang, J., and Newton, A. C., Spatio-temporal dynamics of protein kinase B/Akt signaling revealed by a genetically encoded fluorescent reporter., The Journal of Biological Chemistry 280: 5581-5587 (2005). | PubMed |

Kurokawa, K., Mochizuki, N., Ohba, Y., Mizuno, H., Miyawaki, A., and Matsuda, M., A pair of fluorescent resonance energy transfer-based probes for tyrosine phosphorylation of the CrkII adaptor protein in vivo., The Journal of Biological Chemistry 276: 31305-31310 (2001). | PubMed |

Lager, I., Fehr, M., Frommer, W. B., and Lalonde, S., Development of a fluorescent nanosensor for ribose., FEBS Letters 553: 85-89 (2003). | PubMed |

Lalonde, S., Ehrhardt, D. W., and Frommer, W. B., Shining light on signaling and metabolic networks by genetically encoded biosensors., Current Opinion in Plant Biology 8: 574-581 (2005). | PubMed |

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Lin, C. W. and Ting, A. Y., A genetically encoded fluorescent reporter of histone phosphorylation in living cells., Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) 43: 2940-2943 (2004). | PubMed |

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Liu, L., Yermolaieva, O., Johnson, W. A., Abboud, F. M., and Welsh, M. J., Identification and function of thermosensory neurons in Drosophila larvae., Nature Neuroscience 6: 267-273 (2003). | PubMed |

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| PubMed |

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Luo, K. Q., Yu, V. C., Pu, Y., and Chang, D. C., Measuring dynamics of caspase-8 activation in a single living HeLa cell during TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis., Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 304: 217-222 (2003). | PubMed |

Magliery, T. J., Wilson, C. G. M., Pan, W., Mishler, D., Ghosh, I., Hamilton, A. D., and Regan, L., Detecting protein-protein interactions with a green fluorescent protein fragment reassembly trap: Scope and mechanism., The Journal of the American Chemical Society 127: 146-157 (2005). | PubMed |

Mahajan, N. P., Harrison-Shostak, D. C., Michaux, J., and Herman, B., Novel mutant green fluorescent protein protease substrates reveal the activation of specific caspases during apoptosis., Chemistry and Biology 6: 401-409 (1999). | PubMed |

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Meyer, T. and Teruel, M. N., Fluorescence imaging of signaling networks., Trends in Cell Biology 13: 101-106 (2003). | PubMed |

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Miyawaki, A., Innovations in the imaging of brain functions using fluorescent proteins., Neuron 48: 189-199 (2005). | PubMed |

Miyawaki, A., Visualization of the spatial and temporal dynamics of intracellular signaling., Developmental Cell 4: 295-305 (2003). | PubMed |

Miyawaki, A., Griesbeck, O., Heim, R., and Tsien, R. Y., Dynamic and quantitative calcium measurements using improved cameleons., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 96: 2135-2140 (1999). | PubMed |

Miyawaki, A., Llopis, J., Heim R., McCaffery, J. M., Adams, J. A., Ikura, M., and Tsien, R. Y., Fluorescent indicators for calcium based on green fluorescent proteins and calmodulin., Nature 388: 882-887 (1997). | PubMed |

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Miyawaki, A. and Tsien, R. Y., Monitoring protein conformations and interactions by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between mutants of green fluorescent protein., Methods in Enzymology 327: 472-500 (2000). | PubMed |

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Morgan, M. J. and Thorburn, A., Measurement of caspase activity in individual cells reveals differences in the kinetics of caspase activation between cells., Cell Death and Differentiation 8: 38-43 (2001). | PubMed |

Nagai, T. and Miyawaki, A., A high-throughput method for development of FRET-based indicators for proteolysis., Biomedical and Biophysical Research Communications 319: 72-77 (2004). | PubMed |

Nagai, T., Sawano, A., Park, E. S., and Miyawaki, A., Circularly permuted green fluorescent proteins engineered to sense calcium., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 98: 3197-3202 (2001). | PubMed |

Nagai, T., Yamada, S., Tominaga, T., Ichikawa, M., and Miyawaki, A., Expanded dynamic range of fluorescent indicators for calcium by circularly permuted yellow fluorescent proteins., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 101: 10554-10559 (2004). | PubMed |

Nagai, Y., Miyazaki, M., Aoki, R., Zama, T., Inouye, S., Hirose, K., Iino, M., and Hagiwara, M., A fluorescent indicator for visualizing cAMP-induced phosphorylation in vivo., Nature Biotechnology 18: 313-316 (2000). | PubMed |

Nakai, J., Ohkura, M., and Imoto, K., A high signal-to-noise calcium probe composed of a single green fluorescent protein., Nature Biotechnology 19: 137-141 (2001). | PubMed |

Nalbant, P., Hodgson, L., Kraynov, V., Toutchkine, A., and Hahn, K. M., Activation of endogenous Cdc42 visualized in living cells., Science 305: 1615-1619 (2004).
| PubMed |

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Ng, T., Squire, A., Hansra, G., Bornancin, F., Prevostel, C., Hanby, A., Harris, W., Barnes, D., Schmidt, S., Mellor, H., Bastiaens, P. I. H., and Parker, P. J., Imaging protein kinase C-alpha activation in cells., Science 283: 2085-2089 (1999). | PubMed |

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