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Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
Confocal Microscopy Internet Resources

General Information

The growing utility and popularity of confocal microscopy has resulted in a dramatic increase in applications during recent years and, correspondingly, so have the number of sites on the Internet that address the subject. The links below constitute a selected collection from the best websites available today that provide general information about the history, theory, and practice of this exciting technique. Microscopists at all levels, from beginner to professional, may benefit from visiting many of these resources.

Confocal Imaging - This webpage was established by the Laboratory for Optical and Computational Instrumentation at the University of Wisconsin. The information it contains is introductory but useful, touching upon confocal imaging, applications of confocal microscopy, and a number of other related topics.

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy - Provided by the Cytometry Laboratory at the Walter and Eliza Hill Institute, one of Australia’s leading medical research establishments, the information on this website includes an overview of confocal microscopy that discusses both the advantages and limitations of the technique, a general method for immunofluorescence of cells fixed on coverslips that can be modified for specific experiments, a discussion of colocalisation in confocal microscopy, and links to related websites.

Confocal Microscopy (Auburn University) - Presented by the Auburn University Biological Electron Microscopic Imaging Center, this webpage offers an overview of laser scanning confocal microscopy and how it relates to epi-fluorescence microscopy.

Confocal Microscopy (Cellular Imaging Core) - A valuable resource, this website is sponsored by the Cellular Imaging Core at the University of Arizona. Its primary benefit lies in its numerous links to general and historical aspects of confocal microscopy, as well as sites relating to confocal principles, theory, and optics.

Confocal Microscopy and Cell Culture Facility for Biomaterials (Rutgers University) - The New Jersey Center for Biomaterials sponsors this website, which features an overview of confocal laser scanning microscopy, a variety of applicable protocols and notes, and a gallery of sample confocal images.

From Bones to Atoms: Imaging Nature Across Dimensions - Written by scientists from the M.E. Müller Institute for Microscopy at the University of Basel in Switzerland, this website offers basic information about optical sectioning utilizing confocal microscopy techniques. Information about video-enhanced light microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and digital imaging is also accessible.

Laser Scanning Microscopy - An online comparative examination of confocal laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton laser scanning microscopy is presented by Bruce Jenks of the Department of Cellular Animal Physiology at the University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Numerous well-designed illustrations help facilitate understanding of this fundamental information.

Microscopy, Image Analysis, and 3D Reconstruction - Originally a CD ROM distributed freely at professional conferences, Purdue University’s Cytometry Laboratory has made Microscopy, Image Analysis and 3D Reconstruction accessible on the web. The substantial compilation of material includes a collection of laser confocal microscopy images, time lapse movies, tutorials, notes, PowerPoint presentations, and microscopy website links.